Glossary - I
I.D.: Abbreviation for identity.
I.D.S./I.P.S.: Intrusion Detection System/ Intrusion Prevention System. These are used to identify and alert on network or system intrusion attempts. Composed of sensors which generate security events, a console to monitor events and alerts and control the sensors, and a central engine that records events logged by the sensors in a database. Uses system of rules to generate alerts in response to security events detected. An IPS takes the additional step of blocking the attempted intrusion.
I.E.T.F.: Internet Engineering Task Force. A large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the development of Internet architecture and smooth operation of Internet. IETF is open to any interested individual.
Imprint: An impression of a customer's card made on the sales draft. This proves that the card was present when the sale was transacted.
Incubators: Organizations that offer entrepreneurs multiple resources, including mentoring, financing advice, technological training, business space, and research facilities.
Independent Sales Organization (ISO): An independent company that is registered with Visa to represent a financial institution for the purpose providing processing services to merchants.
In-flight commerce: Transactions, such as shopping or gaming activity, that a cardholder initiates during an airline flight. In MasterCard applications, these transaction types also are referred to as Cardholder- Activated Terminal (CAT) Level 4.
Information Security: The protection of information to insure confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
Information System: Discrete set of structured data resources structured for collection, processing, maintenance, use, sharing, dissemination, or disposition of information.
Ingress: Traffic entering a network from across a communications link and the customer's network.
Inquiry: The section on your credit report that lists anyone who has asked for your credit history.
Installment credit: A credit agreement which allows you to pay back credit in regular payments over a specified time.
Interchange: The predetermined amount that the merchant bank pays the issuing per transaction. Visa and MasterCard set Interchange fees based on a variety of categories such as: card types, industry types, and processing environment. There is one set of Interchange fees for all Visa and MasterCard acquiring and issuing financial institutions.
Interchange Fee: A fee applied to an interchange transaction, applicable to the two members participating in the transaction as 1) issuer and 2) acquirer.
Interchange program: A program that reimburses issuers for specific costs related to an incoming interchange transaction. These costs include: processing costs, financial carrying costs, and risk costs. Interchange fees are payable to the issuer by the acquirer.
Interest: A charge for borrowed money. This is placed, generally, as a percentage of the amount owed.
Internet Payment Gateway Service (IPGS): Provides a standard Internet connection for merchants and merchant aggregators (businesses that provide hosting and other e-commerce processing services for multiple merchants) to securely send and receive payment transaction messages.
Internet: A worldwide system of computer networks. Through the Internet, you can send a note, communicate with people electronically, or search for information on almost any subject matter.
Intranet: An internal or company network which can be accessed by anyone who is directly connected to the company's computer network (e.g., sales reps, partners, vendors).
Invoice Number/Ticket Number: A merchant-defined alphanumeric field that prints on the customer receipt. The invoice number is also required to help qualify a manually keyed-in transaction for the lowest possible Interchange level.
I.P. address: Internet Protocol Address. A unique number used to represent every single computer in a network. All the computers in cyberspace have a unique IP address. The format of an IP Address is four sets of numbers separated by dots (e.g., 220.127.116.11).
I.P. Spoofing: Technique used by an intruder to gain unauthorized access to computers. An intruder sends deceptive messages to a computer with an IP address indicating the message is coming from a trusted host.
I.P.: Stands for: internet protocol. Network-layer protocol containing address information and some control information that enables packets to be routed. IP is the main network-layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite.
I.P.S.E.C.: Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC). Standard for securing IP communications by encrypting and/or authenticating all IP packets. IPSEC provides security at the network layer.
ISO 8583: Established standard for communication amongst financial systems.
I.S.O.: International Organization for Standardization. Non-governmental related organization consisting of a network of the national standards institutes of over 150 countries, with one member per country and a central secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland that organizes the system.
Issuing Bank: A financial institution which issues cards to consumers and businesses.